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Slāi-baau-hī zí gō hài cói ngàai slāi-baau-zat baau-wài gō jáu gōk-zúng-gōk-jòeng hìng-tāai lau gung-nàng gō gāu-zàu.

gī hài slāi-baau gō ah bù-fàn, zùng hài slāi-baau lí-tàu jí saang-màt-mōk lau slāi-baau kì-taa bù-fàn gāak-hoi lòi, gung-nàng dùk-làp gō āa slāi-baau gīt-gāu, gī lau slāi-baau-zat gi-zat, slāi-baau gwat-gāa ah-cài ngàai hāam-zū slāi-baau-zat.

Slāi-baau-hī gō zúng-lùi

Slāi-baau-hī hó-jī gan-gì gī jáu gí-do càng mōk dàai-kōi fan sèng 3 zúng:

Zí-jīu gō zan-hàt slāi-baau-hī
Slāi-baau-hī Zí-jiū gung-nàng Gīt-gāu Saang-màt-tái Bì-zī
Slāi-baau-bēk separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space) which protects the cell from its environment. two-dimensional liquid all eukaryotes
Slāi-baau-mōk The cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan and is rigid, provides shape to the cell, helps to keeps the organelles inside the cell, and does not let the cell burst due to changes in osmotic pressure. cellulose plants, protists, rare kleptoplastic organisms
chloroplast (plastid) photosynthesis, traps energy from sunlight double-membrane compartment plants, protists, rare kleptoplastic organisms has own DNA; theorized to be engulfed by the ancestral eukaryotic cell (endosymbiosis)
endoplasmic reticulum translation and folding of new proteins (rough endoplasmic reticulum), expression of lipids (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes, has folds that are flat sacs; smooth endoplasmic reticulum has folds that are tubular
flagellum locomotion, sensory protein some eukaryotes
Golgi apparatus sorting, packaging, processing and modification of proteins single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes cis-face (convex) nearest to rough endoplasmic reticulum; trans-face (concave) farthest from rough endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondrion energy production from the oxidation of glucose substances and the release of adenosine triphosphate double-membrane compartment most eukaryotes constituting element of the chondriome; has own DNA; theorized to have been engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell (endosymbiosis)[1]
nucleus DNA maintenance, controls all activities of the cell, RNA transcription double-membrane compartment all eukaryotes contains bulk of genome
vacuole storage, transportation, helps maintain homeostasis single-membrane compartment eukaryotes

Mitochondria and plastids, including chloroplasts, have double membranes and their own DNA. According to the endosymbiotic theory, they are believed to have originated from incompletely consumed or invading prokaryotic organisms.

Minor eukaryotic organelles and cell components
Organelle/Macromolecule Main function Structure Organisms
acrosome helps spermatozoa fuse with ovum single-membrane compartment most animals
autophagosome vesicle that sequesters cytoplasmic material and organelles for degradation double-membrane compartment all eukaryotes
centriole anchor for cytoskeleton, organizes cell division by forming spindle fibers Microtubule protein animals
cilium movement in or of external medium; "critical developmental signaling pathway".[2] Microtubule protein animals, protists, few plants
cnidocyst stinging coiled hollow tubule cnidarians
eyespot apparatus detects light, allowing phototaxis to take place green algae and other unicellular photosynthetic organisms such as euglenids
glycosome carries out glycolysis single-membrane compartment Some protozoa, such as Trypanosomes.
glyoxysome conversion of fat into sugars single-membrane compartment plants
hydrogenosome energy & hydrogen production double-membrane compartment a few unicellular eukaryotes
lysosome breakdown of large molecules (e.g., proteins + polysaccharides) single-membrane compartment animals
melanosome pigment storage single-membrane compartment animals
mitosome probably plays a role in Iron-sulfur cluster (Fe-S) assembly double-membrane compartment a few unicellular eukaryotes that lack mitochondria
myofibril myocyte contraction bundled filaments animals
nucleolus pre-ribosome production protein-DNA-RNA most eukaryotes
ocelloid detects light and possibly shapes, allowing phototaxis to take place double-membrane compartment members of the family Warnowiaceae
parenthesome not characterized not characterized fungi
peroxisome breakdown of metabolic hydrogen peroxide single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes
proteasome degradation of unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis very large protein complex all eukaryotes, all archaea, and some bacteria
ribosome (80S) translation of RNA into proteins RNA-protein all eukaryotes
stress granule mRNA storage[3] membraneless

(mRNP complexes)

most eukaryotes
TIGER domain mRNA encoding proteins membraneless most organisms
vesicle material transport single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes
  1. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Morgan D, Raff MC, Roberts K, Walter P, Wilson JH, Hunt T. -{zh;zh-hans;zh-hant|Molecular biology of the cell}- Sixth. Garland Science. 2014-11-18: 679. ISBN 978-0815345244. 
  2. Template:Cite journal
  3. Template:Cite journal