AlphaGo Girl is the moe anthropomorphization of Google's artificial intelligence, AlphaGo.
AlphaGo (Alpha碁) is an AI developed by Google, through its Google DeepMind subsidiary. As its name implies, AlphaGo was designed to play Go, a traditional board game. It became known worldwide for defeating the professional Go player, Lee Sedol from Korea, with a score of 4:1, in March 2016.
Many artists from Asia drew gijinka, or anthropomorphic versions, of AlphaGo and posted them online. Example